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IUK: If Bush wants an invasion it could become more costly than Vietnam
By Robert Fisk
29/9/2001 12:50 am Sat
If Bush wants an invasion, it could become
more costly than Vietnam
By Robert Fisk
18 September 2001
President Bush is talking about a "crusade'' it would be difficult to
find a word more likely to enrage Muslims but if he plans to wage
it in Afghanistan, the United States faces a military campaign more
fraught and potentially even more costly than Vietnam.
Ground troops may be necessary to seize Osama bin Laden but
they will be entering a country containing one tenth of the world's
land mines, left by Soviet occupation forces across 80 per cent of
Besides, anyone who wants to invade Afghanistan needs friends.
The Russians had the communist government of Babrak Karmal.
But, with the murder of the only serious opponent of the Taliban,
Shah Masood, by Arab suicide bombers nine days ago, the United
States hasn't a single friend in that cemetery of foreign armies.
So, are the Americans planning a mere attack by cruise missiles?
They fired 70 missiles at Osama bin Laden's camps after the
bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam they
knew where they were, of course, because the camps were built
by the CIA during the Afghan-Russian war but they did not touch
Mr bin Laden. Do they plan to use special parachute units to
descend on the areas around Kandahar where Mr bin Laden has
been known to live in the past?
And what about those mines? If the Americans are even
contemplating a ground force, it can enter only from Pakistan the
most dangerous main supply route it would be possible to find
and up the Kabul Gorge from Jalalabad. But the Russians seeded
the perimeters of Jalalabad, Kandahar, Khost and Herat with
anti-armour mines. There are, in Afghanistan today, more than 10
million mines. They lie in fields, on mountainsides, beside roads,
around the big cities, along irrigation ditches. On average,
between 20 and 25 Afghan men, women and children are blown
up by mines every day even if we take the lower figure, this
indicates 73,000 civilian casualties from these mines in the past 10
A military incursion would, therefore, need an army of mine
clearance specialists as well as soldiers, men who would have to
inch their way over the roughest terrain in the world while under
attack to make the roads and countryside safe for the Americans
and their allies. Of Afghanistan's 29 provinces, 27 are littered with
During their savage 10-year occupation, the Russians also
planted thousands of mines in "security zones'' around
Afghanistan's airports, power stations and government installations.
Western non-governmental organisations working in the country
two years ago estimated that it would cost £80 per mine to clear
Afghanistan's 10 million mines and 45 days to clear merely a
square mile of land. There are now two million disabled men,
women and children in Afghanistan. No infantry can march across
And then there is that main supply route. Pakistan has already
made clear that it will not involve its own military in a campaign,
although there are suspicions that enough money might persuade
General Musharraf now respectfully referred to as President by
the Americans even though he took the presidency illegally to
change his mind. However, the "Jihadi" culture has already
impregnated the Pakistan army and there is a real possibility of
unrest turning to civil war if the Americans arrived to invade
The very border areas through which a Western army would have
to pass are held by men loyal to the Taliban. On the Pakistani side
of the frontier, there are now 2,000 Taliban madrassas (schools)
where religious teaching is given not only to potential mujahedin
but to Chechen and Tadjik fighters as well.
The policemen who guard these madrassas constitute a mere
facade of governmental control.
Even if the Americans penetrated Afghanistan, their shells would
only plough over the ruins. The Russians tried to destroy the
Taliban's predecessors with 10 years of bombing, destroying
whole villages, with their people, farm animals, fields, trees and
mud huts. And still they could not get rid of the mujahedin, still they
could not to use Mr Bush's inappropriately folksy phrase
"smoke them out of their holes''.
With Pakistan as its only, broken ally among Afghan-istan's
neighbours, with no friends inside the country and 10 million
hidden land mines lying across its mountains and fields and cities,
Mr Bush's "crusade'' looks more than dangerous. We are now
being told that the United States is no longer afraid to take
casualties. America, the President says, will have to accept
losses. He'd better be right.